I hope I’m not the only one as utterly confused by the Pathfinder combat rules as I am in the world. I decided to do a bit of review so combat would run more smoothly, and am putting up my notes here. Basically, this is cutting out all the wordy fluff from the CRB and putting it into reference-able, readable form.
Basic Combat Statistics
Melee Attack Roll: BAB + STR modifier + size modifier
Ranged Attack Roll: BAB + DEX modifier + size modifier + range penalty
Armor Class: 10 + DEX modifier + shield bonus + other modifiers
Note: Armor decreases max dex, so may decrease the dex bonus to AC.
Note: Dex bonus can only be used when character can react to blows
Touch Attacks: disregards armor, shields, and natural armor
Incorporeal Touch Attacks: disregards armor
Note: Incorporeal touch attacks do not ignore AC bonuses from force effects
Normal Damage: STR modifier + weapon damage
Off-Hand Weapon Damage: 0.5 STR modifier + weapon damage
Two Handed Weapon Damage: (for non-light weapons) 1.5 STR modifier + weapon damage
Attacks of Opportunity
Threatened Squares: All squares you could attack. If unarmed, no squares.
Moving: Moving through a threatened square provokes an attack of opportunity
Note: Taking a 5 foot step or using a withdrawal action does not provoke
Attacks: Single melee attack at full attack bonus, only one per round
Note: With Combat Reflexes, # of attacks of opportunity/round = 1 + DEX mod
Speed: 30/6 or 20/4 (in heavy armor)
Running: Spend 2 move actions, move at double speed; Spend whole round, move at quadruple speed (triple in heavy armor)
Moving: At your speed. If you move, you may not make a 5 foot step.
Climbing: At 1/4 your speed. If you climb, you may not make a 5 foot step.
Note: Taking a -5 penalty on climb roll allows movement at 1/2 speed
Swimming: At 1/4 your speed. If you swim, you may not make a 5 foot step.
Crawling: At 1/4 your speed. Provokes attack of opportunity. Considered prone. Must take move action to stand, which also provokes attack of opportunity.
Direct or Redirect Spell: No attack of opportunity, no concentration needed
Draw or Sheath Weapon: With BAB of 1 or higher, is free action. Applies to weapon-like objects like wands.
Mounting/Dismounting: With DC20 Ride check, as free action. Can only attempt if you can take the whole move action should you fail.
Ready/Drop Shield: With BAB of 1 or higher, is free action.
Stand Up: Move action that provokes attack of opportunity
Attacks and Standard Actions
Additional Attacks: At +6, +11, and +16, gain an additional attack if you take a full round attack
Shooting into Melee: Shooting targets engaged in melee incurs a -4 attack penalty.unless they’re more than 10 feet apart
Fighting Defensively: Declared before attacking, -4 to attack roll to get +2 to AC
Activate a Magic Item: Consumes a standard action
Charge: Charging allows you to move at 2x your speed and still attack if you have a clear path to the nearest square from which you could attack your opponent. Take +2 to attack rolls and -2 to AC until your next turn.
Swinging from Ropes: Attacking after swinging on a rope or similar object is treated as a charge with the same rules mechanics.
Feint: Bluff check DC 10 + opponent BAB + opponent wisdom (or sense motive modifier, if higher). Next move opponent does not get DEX bonus to AC.
Full Round Actions
Full Attack: With BAB +1 or higher, with 2 weapons, or other, you may attack twice in a round. If you do so, you may only take a five foot step as movement during that round.
Note: When making a full attack, you may fight defensively and take -4 to attack rolls and +2 to AC just as with a normal attack
Moving 5 Feet in Difficult Terrain: In especially difficult terrain, it takes a full round to move five feet. This is not a five foot step.
Run: Running the whole round, you may move at 4x your speed (3x in heavy armor). You lose your DEX bonus to AC. You may run for a number of rounds equal to your constitution score, and then must make Con checks with a DC of 10 + the number of times you’ve made the check.
Withdraw: You may move at 2x your speed away from melee combat, not provoking attacks of opportunity from visible opponents (invisible still get it). If while withdrawing you move out of a threatened square other than the one you started in, enemies get attacks of opportunity as normal.
Full Round Spells: Spells that take a full round to cast come into effect RIGHT BEFORE YOUR NEXT TURN and may be interrupted during that time, causing you to need to make concentration checks to continue casting it.
Casting: Must be able to fulfill components requirements, (Verbal, Somatic, Material) and concentrate. Provokes an attack of opportunity unless its a free action to cast.
Concentration: If something happens to a spellcaster while casting, they must make a concentration check to continue casting. d20 + casting stat mod + CL
Note: Concentration table: http://www.d20pfsrd.com/magic#TOC-Concentration
Crits: Spells that require an attack roll can crit with a natural 20 and inflict double damage
Counterspells: With DC15 Spellcraft check, identify an enemy spell and cast that spell (if you have it) to dispel their spell and ruin their spell.
Performing a Maneuver: Apply CMB against your opponent’s CMD to roll. Attempting a combat maneuver provokes an attack of opportunity unless otherwise noted. If your opponent hits you while attempting the maneuver, add the damage they inflict as a penalty on the attack roll.
Incapacitated Opponents: Combat maneuver checks against incapacitated opponents (immobilized, unconscious, otherwise unable to react) automatically succeed.
Stunned Opponents: +4 on your attack roll.
Dirty Trick: Allows you to perform some creative action (kicking sand into your opponent’s eyes, for example) to inflict one of the following conditions for 1 + 1 for every 5 you exceed your opponent’s CMD by on an attack roll rounds: blinded, dazzled, deafened, entangled, shaken, sickened. Condition may be removed by taking a move action.
Disarm: Provokes an attack of opportunity. If succeeds by 10 or more, opponent drops both things in their hands. Attempting to disarm unarmed is a -4 penalty. You may use any weapon (and its bonuses) to disarm an opponent. If you disarm unarmed, you automatically have the weapon they were previously holding in your hands afterwards.
Drag: Move an opponent 5 feat backwards. Provokes attack of opportunity.
Grappling: Normal CMB vs CMD roll. Gives both the grappled condition. +5 circumstance bonuses for aggressor to maintain the grapple. Allows pinning, trying up, moving, inflicting unarmed or light one-handed weapon damage with successful grapple check.
Overrun: With CMB vs CMD roll, move through opponent’s square. Works as part of charge.
Steal/Sunder: CMB vs CMD roll, GM decides penalties based on feasibility of theft
Trip: CMB vs CMD roll, opponent knocked prone. If you fail by 10 or more, you are knocked prone.
Terrain and Obstacles
Difficult Terrain: Squares cost twice the movement, moving diagonally costs triple. Characters cannot charge or run across difficult terrain.
Armor Class Modifiers
Ready any kind of action in response to another kind of action. Example: I ready an attack with my great sword the next time the spell caster tries to cast a spell. If the thing you’ve readied for happens before your turn, you may take the action then. When it gets back to your turn, you either choose to re-ready the action or do something else.
Two Weapon Fighting
Incur penalties occuring to this table. You get one extra attack with your off weapon (an unarmed strike is considered a light weapon should you chose to use it.
Non-Combat Trained Mounts: If your mount is not combat trained, controlling it is a DC20 Ride check as a move action to control your mount every round. If you fail, you do nothing but control your mount that turn (and take free actions).
Attacking from a Mount: With a free action DC5 Ride check you can control your mount with your knees to attack. If melee, get +1 bonus.
Ranged Attacks: When mount uses double move, ranged attacks take -4. When mount runs at quadruple speed, take – 8
Casting: If the mount is moving, make Concentration DC10 + spell level or lose the spell. At quadruple speed, is DC15 + spell level.
Mount Falls: DC15 Ride check or take 1d6 fall damage.
You Drop: 50% chance to stay in the saddle, 75% for military saddle. Otherwise, 1d6 points fall damage and your mount avoids combat.